1894

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Diary Entries
KEY:
H – Hail
L – Lightning
R – Rain
Sn – Snow
T – Thunder
TS – Thunderstorm
TSS – Thunderstorms

January
4th Keswick, The Beeches – Heavy Sn, much drifted

February
6th Grasmere – R 3.65 inch, falling almost continuously at a fairly uniform rate.
12th Uldale rectory – H and Sn storms with some T
Keswick, The Beeches – Heavy Sn during the day. T+L between 1730-1830hrs. Hurricane at night

13th Seathwaite Vicarage – T+L at night, followed by sharp frost

MARCH
11th Seathwaite Vicarage – T+L+H
Ulpha Vicarage – TS

15th Brampton Denton House – Absolute drought for 18 days

APRIL
2/3rd Keswick, The Beeches– T+L
3rd Seathwaite Vicarage – T+L
5th Ulpha Vicarage – A period of 21 rainless days ended
15th Seathwaite Vicarage– T+L in eve’
24th Keswick, The Beeches – TS in afternoon.
27th Keswick, The Beeches – TSS in eve’

MAY
7th Ulpha Vicarage – H+T
20th Unthank Hall– Sleet shwrs and frost at night, all vegetationgreatly damaged.
20-22th Brampton Denton House – Hard frost, doing much damage to vegetation. A heavy shwr of Sn fell on the 21st at 3p.m. and the distant hills were white for 3 days

21st Buttermere Hassnes – Sn and frost
Keswick, The Beeches – Sn
Uldale rectory – Sn fell heavily, followed by frost on this and suceeding nights

28th Keswick, The Beeches – Sn
29/30th Ulpha Vicarage – T
31st Keswick, The Beeches – T
Uldale rectory – T in afternoon
Allonby, Cumberland – Sharp TS at 11 a.m., wall by the side of the road either struck or shaken down by L

JUNE
1st Uldale rectory – T
4th Melmerby – Strong helm wind and R

JULY
1st Keswick, The Beeches – Vivid L at night
5th Eskdale – Violent TS from 5-8 p.m.
6th Broughton in furness – TS
Ulpha Vicarage – TS
Whitehaven, Irish St., – During a TS 0.85 inch of R fell in 15 mins
Keswick, The Beeches Terrific TS with heavy H+R from 5-7 p.m.6th Melmerby – Severe TS in afternoon
Uldale rectory – Heavy R with much T+L
Nunwick Hall – In 2hrs 1.15 inch of R fell with heavy T

20th Eskdale – Heavy TS, R 1.19 inch
21st Seathwaite Vicarage – R 1.22 inch falling mostly in 2hrs
24/25th Melmerby – Strong helm wind
25th Broughton in furness – T
Seathwaite Vicarage – Heavy T shwr, 1.33inch falling in mainly 1hr

25th Ulpha Vicarage and Eskdale – Heavy TS
Keswick, The Beeches – TS from 1910-2000 Hrs

AUGUST
9th – Carlisle Nr. Castle Carrock; the Gelt rose so rapidly that it took the wooden bridge at Gelt Mill, carried it over the parapet of the bridge at Middle gelt, and deposited it in a field at Ryeclose, about 7 miles distant.
It also carried away the stone bridge in Gelt woods at Helbeck and so damaged a bridge on the Newcastle to Carlisle line that only one pair of rails could be used.
the river rose so high that trout were left stranded in the fields, some of them 500 yards from the bed of the river.
Just before reaching the Irthing the Gelt took a new course and from 20 to 30 acres of meadow land were left covered with between 2-3 feet of sand. Eighty trees (large and small) were stranded in one field. Without pursuing the list of damage, which must include quite a dozen bridges (large and small) we may say that it resulted from excessive rain on the ridge separating Northumberland from Cumberland, especially the portion about 7 miles long reaching NNW from Gilderdale forest (3 miles W of Alston) to cold Fell (2039 ft).
It was very local, for in many surrounding villages hay making went on all day. The event seems to have closely resembled that on Bloody Bush edge on July 2nd 1893, which was fully described and illustrated in ‘British rainfall’ 1893. The two localities are scarcely 40 miles apart.
An observer in the neighbourhood says that he observed clouds coming from the direction of the Solway and one after another they settled on the top of the fells, until they accumulated like long drifts of snow. Soon after this he heard a great roaring noise and floods of water came down every hollow.
The little river Gelt rose, not by inches, but all at once to a raging torrent and swept trees and bridges before it.

12th – Uldale rectory – sea fog all day

15th – Keswich, the Beeches – Frequent T from 4-6 p.m.
Uldale rectory – T at 3 p.m.

SEPTEMBER
8th – 22nd – Edenhall Vicarage – Absolute drought for 15 days.
8th – October 12th – Edenhall Vicarage – Partial Drought for 35 days. Only 0.21 inch of rain

OCTOBER
6th – Keswick, The Beeches – Absolute drought commencing on September 19th ended.
18th – Melmerby – Snow on the fells
19th – Ulpha Vicarage – Snow on the hills
Uldale Rectory – First snow on Skiddaw

NOVEMBER
11th – Seathwaite and Ulpha Vicarages – Both had Lightning at night with thunder also heard at Ulpha.

13th – Seathwaite Vicarage – Heavy RAIN, 2.62 inch, which was almost tropical in the night. Holes two feet deep being washed in the roads.

13th – Keswick, The Beeches – Heavy RAIN at night abd SNOW on the mountains

15th – Keswick, The Beeches – Snow on the mountains, HAIL + SLEET showers. THUNDER STORM at 8.30 p.m.
16th – Keswick, The Beeches – THUNDER STORM in early morning. HAIL showers and SNOW on the mountains

DECEMBER
17th – Cleator Moor – RAIN, 2.53 inch in a very local fall.
21st – Cockermouth, Hassnes – Great storm of WIND and RAIN, 2.35 inch
Rose Castle – Sudden fall and rise of bar. accompanied by hurricane of unparalleled force, doing great damage. The castle (walls 9Ft in thickness) perceptibly rocked during the night.

21st/22nd – Edenhall Vicarage – Destructive gales.

22nd – Brampton, Denton House – Heavy storm of wind from SW and W doing considerable damage

Cartmel Pit farm – The wildest hurricane for many years and an abnormally high tide drowned several hundred sheep on the marshes by Duddon Sands

28th – Eskdale Vicarage – Heavy HAIL storm at night
keswick, The Beeches – Heavy SNOW and HAIL at night

DECEMBER

Seathwaite Vicarage - Mild and wet.

RAIN more than the average; likely to be remembered for the prlonged violent gale on 21st and 22nd. Ulpha Vicarage - Mild generally with frost from 2nd to 5th and on 30th and 31st.

RAIN heavy, considering the number of days without any.

Keswick, The Beeches - The first 6 and last 3 days were fine, bright and frosty; the remainder of the month was showery and at times very wild, especially the 13th, 22nd and 28th.

OBSERVERS NOTES ON THE YEAR

Cartmel, Holker - January was open and rainy. February a wet month with strong gales in the second week. No RAIN fell during the latter half of March, giving a fine seed-time and April was beautifully fine and sunny,

followed by a cold May. June, July and August were lacking in sunshine, while September was dry and summerlike throughout and open weather continued until December 26th.

Cartmel, Pit Farm - the longest periods of rainless weather were 16 days in March and 13 days in September, but in the 43 days ending October 8th only 0.46 inch of RAIN fell.

There were 6 days with falls exceeding an inch.

The temp. Rose above 70f on 21 days and above 80f on 5 days, but did not reach 70f on any day in August.

Cartmel, Broughton Hall - Total RAIN about 1.50 inch above the average of 26 years.

The monthly falls were equable with the exception of February which was wet and September dry. On 6 days more than an inch of RAIN fell.

Ulverston, Colton - Every month except April and September had more than the average fall [RAIN] and the total exceeds the average by 9.85 inch.

February had the heaviest fall for that month in 47 years and September the least in the same period.

Seathwaite Vicarage - Though March and April were dry months and September one of the driest remembered, the total RAIN and number of rainy days were above the average.

A mild and exceptionally early spring was followed by a cold and rainy summer.

Notes of transcriber:

1.) Cartmel, Broughton Hall - total rainfall for 1894 is given as 50.13 inch with rain falling on 206 days. This would make its average rainfall for 1867 – 1893 of ‘about’ 48.63 inches

2.) Ulverston, Colton – total rainfall for 1894 is given as 64.38 inch with rain falling on 201 days. This would make its average rainfall for [using the quoted 47yr period] 1846 – 1893 of 54.53 inches.

Millom, Leyfield - RAIN 0.11 inch and rainy days 9 above the average of 5 years.

Drought for 22 days ending April 5th.

August wet and September very dry with only 0.75 inch of RAIN, of which 0.54 inch fell in one day.

Duddon Valley, Ulpha Vic - RAIN 4.14 inch above the average of 7 years

Braystones - RAIN 1.74 inch and evaporation 4.74 inch less than the average of 30 years.

Whitehaven, Irish Street - RAIN 3.27 inch more than the average of 18 years.

Keswick, Shu-Le-Crow - RAIN fell on only 4 days in September, amounting to 0.68 inch [17.2 mm.]. Of the October RAIN (5.87 inch) no less than 5.47 inch fell between the 23rd and 31st and of these days only two were without

RAIN.

Complete absence of SNOW in the autumn and winter; some very few sprinklings only on the high fells.

On December 22nd a destructive hurricane occurred from 5 a.m. to 9 a.m.

Cockermouth, Whinfell Hall - RAIN a little above the average. A showery spring produced an abundant hay crop.

Cockermouth, Brandlinggill - As usual very little SNOW fell in West Cumberland.

Cockermouth, Higham - No SNOW except slight falls in May. On August 2nd 2.18 inch of RAIN fell, the second heaviest fall since the record commenced in 1864.

September was the driest on record, the drought began on August 27th and lasted till October 23rd. Only 0.85 inch falling on eleven days during that time.

Cockermouth, Broughton Grange - RAIN slightly above the average, in spite of the drought in the early Autumn.

Blencowe School - RAIN 6.50 inch above the average of 20 years.

February was a terrible month for RAIN, indeed, the wettest month registered since observations began in 1871 and in no other year have there been so many falls exceeding and inch (7)

besides three more of over 0.80 inch.

There were terrible storms of wind and RAIN on December 22nd and 28th, doing much damage. The latter half of March, the latter half of August, the whole of September and the first half of

October were unusually dry and water became scarce.

Maryport, Netherhall - RAIN much above the average.

A very heavy and exceptional fall occurred on August 2nd, 2.20 inch.

Alston, Love Lady Shield - Fruit a failure owing to the late frost in May.

Hay harvest good, but late owing to a wet July and August. April dry and hot.

Burgh By sands - A wet year on the whole, but the temp’ in hay-time and harvest being low, it was not unfavourable to agriculture operations.

Natland Park - RAIN 2.01 inch above the average.

An early spring, with summer temp’ at Easter, seemed to promise that 1894 would be similar to 1893, but frosty nights in may destroyed the promise of fruitfulness.

Windermere, Fallbarrow - In October there were 4 days on which more than an inch of RAIN fell and in November 3 days.

Notes of transcriber:

1.) Braystones - total rainfall for 1894 is given as 34.53 inch (number of days with rain not noted). This would make its average rainfall for 1864 – 1893 of ‘about’ 39.27 inches

2.) Whitehaven, Irish Street - total rainfall for 1894 is given as 44.47 inch with rain falling on 167 days. This would make its average rainfall for 1876 – 1893 of ‘about’ 41.20 inches

3.) Blencowe School - total rainfall for 1894 is given as 46.56 inch with rain falling on 219 days. This would make its average rainfall for 1874 – 1893 of ‘about’ 40.06 inches

POSTSCIPT:-

OBITUARIES:

1.) Appleby Observer – Dr. Fergus whose period of observations was 1856 – 1894, giving 38 years of obs.

2.) Keswick, The Beeches – the observer here is listed as (the late) T. Pauline esq.

Whilst the date of his death is not shown, the obituary states ‘Observers deceased to July 1895’.

Paulin is shown to have done observations at Keswick from 1890 – 1894. Previous to that he is shown to have lived in three separate properties in Middlesex, from all of which he made observations, commencing 1866.

 

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